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Intraobserver variability of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy with and without stereo photographs
  1. H T Nguyen1,
  2. K P Pikey1,
  3. S K Gardiner1,
  4. D Gritz2,
  5. R Krishnadas3,
  6. G A Cioffi1,
  7. S L Mansberger1
  1. 1
    Devers Eye Institute/Discoveries in Sight, Portland, Oregon, USA
  2. 2
    Eye Foundation of Kansas, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
  3. 3
    Aravind Eye Hospitals and Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Madurai, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr S L Mansberger, Devers Eye Institute, 1040 NW 22nd Ave, Suite # 200, Portland, OR 97210, USA; smansberger{at}

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The purpose of this study is to determine whether optic disc photographs decrease the intraobserver variability of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO) topographic parameters using the HRT II (version 2.01; Heidelberg Instruments, Heidelberg, Germany).


All participants lived near Madurai, India.12 A single operator used the HRT II and corrected for astigmatism and entered keratometry values.3 A trained photographer used a sequential stereo fundus camera (Kowa, Genesis D Standard, Tokyo) to take optic disc photographs. All of the investigations complied with the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki.

We created three duplicate sets of topographic images. The observer (KP) used the stereo photographs to draw contour lines for the first set of images (C1). To eliminate bias from the previous contour line placement, he waited 2 months, then randomly ordered the images and randomly selected whether to …

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  • Funding 5K23EY015501-1 (SLM), Good Samaritan Foundation, Heidelberg Engineering (equipment), Proctor Foundation.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and Peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by the Institutional Review Boards at Aravind Eye Hospital (Madurai, India) and Legacy Health System, Portland, Oregon.

  • Patient consent Obtained.