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Immunohistochemical localisation of d-β-aspartic acid-containing proteins in climatic droplet keratopathy


Aim: Biologically uncommon d-β-aspartic acid (d-β-Asp) accumulates in the body with age and is involved in the ageing process. In the present study, the localisation of d-β-Asp-containing proteins was investigated in surgical specimens with climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK), one of the ocular changes related to the ageing process.

Methods: Immunohistochemical localisation of d-β-Asp-containing proteins using polyclonal antibodies raised against d-β-Asp-containing peptides was examined in three corneas with CDK, three corneas with interstitial keratitis, six corneas with bullous keratopathy, and three corneas without any corneal diseases.

Results: Strong immunoreactivity to d-β-Asp-containing peptide was detected in all the surgical specimens with CDK. In contrast, no immunoreactivities to d-β-Asp-containing peptides were detected in the surgical specimens with bullous keratopathy, interstitial keratitis, or no corneal diseases.

Conclusions: CDK was regarded as aggregations of d-β-Asp-containing proteins. The formation of d-amino acids in protein causes the different side chain orientations and β-linkage of Asp residues elongates the main chain of proteins. Therefore, d-β-Asp formation will result in a partial unfolding of proteins leading to the aggregation of proteins seen in CDK.

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