Aim: To describe ophthalmological phenotypes in patients with mitochondrial disease and known genotypes.
Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 59 patients (29 male, 30 female) with a mean age of 11.8 years who had mitochondrial disease with known DNA mutations. Fifty-seven of the 59 subjects underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination including visual acuity (VA), eye motility, refraction, slit-lamp examination, ophthalmoscopy and, in almost one-half of the cases, a full-field electroretinogram (ERG).
Results: Forty-six (81%) of the patients had one or more ophthalmological findings such as ptosis (n = 16), reduced eye motility (n = 22) including severe external ophthalmoplegia (n = 9), strabismus (n = 4), nystagmus (n = 9), low VA (n = 21), refractive errors (n = 26), photophobia (n = 4), and partial or total optic atrophy (n = 25). Pigmentation in the macula and/or periphery was noted in 16 patients. In 10/27 investigated individuals with full field ERG, retinal dystrophy was recorded in six different genotypes representing Kearns–Sayre syndrome (n = 5), Leigh syndrome (n = 1), Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) (n = 1), Myoclonus epilepsy with red ragged fibres (MERRF) (n = 1), Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (n = 1) and mitochondrial myopathy (n = 1).
Conclusion: The results show that a majority of patients with mitochondrial disorders have ophthalmological abnormalities. We recommend that an ophthalmological examination, including ERG, be performed on all children and adolescents who are suspected of having a mitochondrial disease.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.