Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Clinical features and visual outcomes of Japanese patients with scleritis
  1. H Keino,
  2. T Watanabe,
  3. W Taki,
  4. C Nakashima,
  5. A A Okada
  1. Department of Ophthalmology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Annabelle A Okada, Department of Ophthalmology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611, Japan; aokada{at}


Purpose To analyse clinical features, systemic associations, treatment and visual outcomes in Japanese patients with scleritis.

Methods Clinical records of 83 patients with scleritis who presented between 1998 and 2008 to the Ocular Inflammation Service of the Kyorin Eye Center, Tokyo, were reviewed.

Results Of the 83 patients, 57 (69%) had diffuse anterior scleritis, 9 (11%) had nodular anterior scleritis, 8 (10%) had necrotising anterior scleritis and 9 (11%) had posterior scleritis. There was a slight predominance of women (55%) and unilateral disease (53%). Mean age at presentation was 51 years (range 12–82 years). Secondary ocular complications were observed in 78% of patients, including anterior uveitis in 25% and increased intraocular pressure in 40%. Investigation revealed a systemic disease association in 24 patients (29%), including six patients (7.2%) with tuberculosis and 18 patients (22%) with rheumatologic disease. Thirty-five patients (42%) received systemic corticosteroid treatment and 19 patients (23%) received immunosuppressive agents. All 17 patients with necrotising anterior scleritis or posterior scleritis were treated with oral corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs. Visual outcomes were generally good; however, poorer outcomes were observed in eyes with necrotising scleritis, mostly due to corneal ulceration or corneal opacification.

Conclusions A systemic disease association was identified in 29% of Japanese patients with scleritis. Roughly one-half of patients received oral corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs to control inflammation, with generally good visual outcomes.

  • Scleritis
  • rheumatologic disease
  • tuberculosis
  • immunomodulatory therapy
  • methotrexate
  • sclera and episclera
  • inflammation

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.