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Correlation between the pattern of myopic fundal changes and the axis of astigmatism of the eye
  1. Riyaz Ahmad1,
  2. Mouhamed A Al-Aqaba2,
  3. Usama Fares2,
  4. Ahmad Muneer Otri2,
  5. Ammar Miri2,
  6. Dalia G Said2,3,
  7. Harmnider S Dua2
  1. 1Rotherham District General Hospital, Rotherham, UK
  2. 2Queen's Medical Centre, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
  3. 3Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo, Egypt
  1. Correspondence to Professor Harminder S Dua, Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, B Floor, Eye and ENT Centre, Queen's Medical Centre, University Hospital, Derby Road, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK; harminder.dua{at}


Aims Myopic fundal changes have been studied in great detail, clinically and pathologically. To our knowledge correlation between these changes and the axis of astigmatism has not been studied before. This study was conducted to assess the correlation, if any, between the pattern of myopic fundal changes and the axis of astigmatism.

Methods Sixty-nine eyes (42 patients) with one or more characteristic myopic fundal change were studied prospectively. The patterns of myopic change were recorded by fundus photography. The deep/longest axis of the crescent and peripapillary atrophy was determined and ascribed a value in degrees in a manner similar to the axis of astigmatism in refraction. Refraction was then carried out. The axis of peripapillary atrophy and that of the crescent was correlated with the axis of myopic astigmatism and the coefficient of correlation determined (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient).

Results A statistically significant correlation was found between the axis of compound myopic astigmatism and the long axis of myopic retinal degeneration (r=0.89, p<0.001) and with the deep axis of disc crescents (r=0.80, p <0.001).

Conclusion Astigmatism is likely to have an aetiopathogenic association with myopic fundal changes.

  • Astigmatism
  • chorioretinal atrophy
  • cornea
  • myopia
  • optics and refraction
  • peripapillary atrophy
  • retina

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the Nottingham Research Ethics Committee Ref. DIJ/JC/RD.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.