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Current treatment options for retinal angiomatous proliferans (RAP)
  1. Bhaskar Gupta,
  2. Sreedhar Jyothi,
  3. Sobha Sivaprasad
  1. Laser and Retinal Research Unit, King's College Hospital, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Sobha Sivaprasad, Laser and Retinal Research Unit, Ophthalmology Department, King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, UK; senswathi{at}


Retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) accounts for 12–15% of all patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NV-AMD). However, this subtype is often excluded from clinical trials aimed at assessing the efficacy of various treatment options for NV-AMD. Thus, there are no established protocols for the management of RAP. This review of current literature on RAP compares the outcomes of various treatment options for this condition and highlights the lack of clinical trials and paucity of long-term data on this relatively common condition.

  • Retinal angiomatous proliferation
  • anti-VEGF
  • neovascular age-related macular degeneration
  • photodynamic therapy
  • triamcinolone
  • laser
  • neovascularisation

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  • Competing interests SS has received research grants from Novartis and Pfizer.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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