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Eyelid eversion for visualisation of the upper eyelid lamellae: an anatomical cadaver study
  1. Marcus M Marcet1,2,3,
  2. Bradley N Lemke4,
  3. Mark J Greenwald2,
  4. Tamara R Fountain5,
  5. Steven Roth6,
  6. Sander R Dubovy7
  1. 1Eye Institute, University of Hong Kong, Cyberport, Hong Kong
  2. 2Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  3. 3Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  4. 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
  5. 5Department of Ophthalmology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  6. 6Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  7. 7Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Marcus M Marcet, University of Hong Kong, Eye Institute, Rm 301, Blk B, Cyberport 4, 100 Cyberport Rd, Cyberport, Hong Kong; marcet{at}


Controversy persists in surgical eyelid anatomy despite the routine use of microanatomical examination in modern eyelid research. The aim of our study was to facilitate visualisation of upper eyelid anatomy by optimising the orientation of cadaveric specimens. We studied the anatomy of everted eyelids, providing an excellent histological view of the posterior approach to the eyelid commonly used in surgery. Non-traumatic separation of the eyelid lamellae provides a new view of the eyelid's lamellar nature. Further application of this model may enhance understanding of the multilayered aspect of the levator aponeurosis. The technique may improve intraoperative understanding of critical eyelid anatomy and promote safer and more effective eyelid surgery.

  • Eyelids
  • anatomy and histology
  • cadaver
  • blepharoptosis
  • levator palpebrae aponeurosis
  • orbit
  • retina
  • degeneration
  • inflammation
  • medical education
  • wound healing
  • eye (tissue) banking
  • iris
  • tears
  • prosthesis
  • pathology
  • lacrimal gland
  • lacrimal drainage
  • cosmesis
  • treatment other
  • ocular surface
  • muscles
  • imaging
  • ciliary body
  • anatomy
  • treatment surgery
  • choroid
  • neoplasia
  • eye lids

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  • Presented at the Oculoplastics Paper Session, 26th Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology Congress in Sydney, Australia on 22 March 2011.

  • Funding Section of Ophthalmology, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval The study was performed in compliance with the University of Chicago Institutional Review Board's policy on research on decedents. In addition, the study conformed to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.