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Stereotactic low-voltage x-ray irradiation for age-related macular degeneration
  1. Darius M Moshfeghi1,
  2. Peter K Kaiser2,
  3. Michael Gertner3
  1. 1Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
  2. 2Department of Ophthalmology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  3. 3Department of Ophthalmology, Oraya Therapeutics, Inc., Newark, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Darius M Moshfeghi, Department of Ophthalmology, Eye Institute at Stanford, Vitreoretinal Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2452 Watson Court, Palo Alto, CA 94303, USA;dariusm{at}


The IRay stereotactic low-voltage x-ray irradiation treatment system for age-related macular degeneration consists of a low voltage x-ray tube, an eye tracking system, a robotically controlled delivery system, a coupling device to facilitate tracking and stabilisation, a graphical user interface and gating software. Low-voltage x-rays are delivered in a series of three spots to the macula in a non-invasive manner through the inferior pars plana. These beams are designed to overlap on the centre of the macula. Each beam delivers one-third of the total dose, such that the total macula dose is three times an individual beam's dose. The device is designed to run off standard domestic electrical power, and no special shielding is necessary for the room. This system has been validated in Monte Carlo simulations, human cadaver eye studies, pre-clinical animal studies and in a phase I clinical trial.

  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • radiotherapy
  • x-ray
  • retina
  • macula
  • neovascularisation
  • treatment other

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  • Competing interests Financial Disclosure: DMM (consultant, Scientific Advisory Board, stock option grant), PKK (consultant, Scientific Advisory Board, stock option grant), MG (equity, intellectual property).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.