Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Health-related quality of life measures (HRQoL) in patients with amblyopia and strabismus: a systematic review
  1. Jill Carlton,
  2. Eva Kaltenthaler
  1. Health Economics and Decision Science (HEDS), School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
  1. Correspondence to Jill Carlton, Health Economics and Decision Science (HEDS), School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, Regent Court, 30 Regent Street, Sheffield S1 4DA, UK; j.carlton{at}


Background/aims Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures are used in healthcare to help inform clinical decision-making and policy-making decisions. A number of disease-specific or condition-specific measures have been developed and applied in ophthalmology; however, their use in the specific fields of amblyopia and strabismus are not as established. The purpose of this study is to identify and discuss specific HRQoL instruments that may be used in the investigation and management of patients with amblyopia and/or strabismus.

Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken in November 2009. The electronic databases of AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine: 1985 to November 2009), the British Nursing Index and Archive (1985 to October 2009), Ovid Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid Medline (1950 to present) and PsycINFO (1806 to November Week 1 2009) were searched. No language restrictions were applied to the search.

Results Four instruments were identified: the Amblyopia and Strabismus Questionnaire (A&SQ), the Amblyopia Treatment Index (ATI), the Adult Strabismus Questionnaire (AS-20) and the Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire (IXTQ).

Conclusion The use of HRQoL measures in patients with amblyopia and/or strabismus is a developing area. Further research is necessary to determine the impact of issues such as diplopia and poor cosmesis upon patient groups, and to determine the influence of ethnicity and parental reporting in these patients.

  • Health-related quality of life (HRQoL)
  • orthoptic
  • strabismus
  • amblyopia
  • vision
  • public health
  • cosmesis
  • child health (paediatrics)

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Funding This work was produced by JC under the terms of Personal Development Award research training fellowship issued by the NIHR. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, The National Institute for Health Research or the Department of Health.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.