Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Management of keratoconus: current scenario
  1. Vishal Jhanji1,2,
  2. Namrata Sharma3,
  3. Rasik B Vajpayee2
  1. 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  2. 2Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  3. 3Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
  1. Correspondence to Professor Rasik B Vajpayee, Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, 32, Gisborne Street, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia; rasikv{at}


Keratoconus is an ectatic corneal dystrophy and is a leading indication for corneal transplantation surgery worldwide. The disease was first described in detail more than 150 years ago by Dr John Nottingham, but the understanding of the disease and its management have undergone significant changes over the last few decades. Corneal specialists have adopted new techniques and technologies for the effective management of keratoconus, while adhering to the age-old concepts of contact lens fitting and penetrating keratoplasty. Lamellar keratoplasty has been revived with improved outcomes and devices such as intracorneal ring segments are being used to treat cases of early keratoconus effectively. This review article discusses the current scenario on the surgical as well as non-surgical management of keratoconus with a focus on the established, novel and emerging treatment modalities.

  • Keratoconus
  • surgical management
  • keratoplasty
  • penetrating keratoplasty
  • lamellar keratoplasty
  • deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty
  • contact lens
  • corneal collagen cross linking
  • intracorneal ring segments
  • excimer laser
  • cornea
  • dystrophy
  • treatment surgery
  • treatment medical

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Competing interests None to declare.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.