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Low-cost portable fluorescein angiography
  1. Richard J Maude1,2,
  2. Katherine Plewes1,
  3. Joss Dimock1,
  4. Arjen M Dondorp1,2
  1. 1Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
  2. 2Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Richard J Maude, Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420/6 Rajvithi Road, Rajthevee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; richardmaude{at}


Fundus fluorescein angiography has great potential as a unique non-invasive tool to investigate in vivo the microvascular pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases affecting the central nervous system. However, because it requires a bulky and expensive tabletop retinal camera, it is normally limited to cooperative and alert seated patients in well-resourced settings. Recently completed and ongoing studies of the pathogenesis of severe malaria are using fluorescein angiography to examine in detail the postulated central role of microvascular obstruction. We describe a novel method of fluorescein angiography with a portable retinal camera that can be adapted at very low cost for use in sick patients at the bedside. This method greatly expands the scope of potential studies utilising fluorescein angiography.

  • Retina
  • macula
  • infection
  • imaging
  • diagnostic tests/investigation
  • malaria
  • fluorescein angiography
  • microcirculation
  • photography

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  • Funding Wellcome Trust.

  • Competing interests None to declare.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the Bangladesh Medical Research Council ethics committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.