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Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, independent of conventional risk factors and novel biomarkers for diabetic retinopathy
  1. Supreeth Rudrappa1,
  2. Graham Warren2,
  3. Iskandar Idris1,3
  1. 1Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Sherwood Forest Hospitals Foundation Trust, Nottinghamshire, UK
  2. 2Trent Research Design Services, University of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK
  3. 3School of Graduate Entry Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, UK
  1. Correspondence to
    Dr Iskandar Idris, School of Graduate Entry Medicine, University of Nottingham, Royal Derby Hospital, Uttoxeter Road, Derby DE12, UK; iidris{at}

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Accumulating evidence suggests an association between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and diabetic retinopathy.1 The mechanism for this is unclear but a previous study suggested that hypertension and high body mass index are strongly implicated.2 Increases in serum vascular endothelial growth factor and other biomarkers3–5 have also recently been shown to be independently predictive for retinopathy. Their role in mediating OSA induced retinopathy, independent of conventional risk factors, is not known. We therefore performed an exploratory study to corroborate the link between OSA with diabetic retinopathy and the association of novel serum biomarkers on OSA induced diabetic retinopathy.

In all, 31 male obese patients with Type 2 diabetes (body mass index 28–40; HbA1c 7.0%–12.0%) attending a hospital diabetes obesity clinic on stable medication regimen with no significant comorbidities were recruited. All subjects underwent an …

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  • Contributors GW assisted in the study analysis. SR participated in data interpretation and wrote the first draft of the paper. II conceived the study, coordinated the study and obtained ethical approval. All authors read, contributed towards and approved the final manuscript.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval Nottingham Research Ethics Committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.