Aim To automatically classify abnormal retinal images from four different categories using artificial neural networks with a high degree of accuracy in minimal time to assist the ophthalmologist in subsequent treatment planning.
Methods We used 420 abnormal retinal images from four different categories (non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion, central serous retinopathy and central neo-vascularisation membrane). Green channel extraction, histogram equalisation and median filtering were used as image pre-processing techniques, followed by texture-based feature extraction. The application of Kohonen neural networks for pathology identification was also explored.
Results The approach described yielded an average classification accuracy of 97.7% with ±0.8% deviation for individual categories. The average sensitivity and the specificity values are 96% and 98%, respectively. The time taken by the Kohonen neural network to achieve these accurate results was 300±40 s for the 420 images.
Conclusion This study suggests that the approach described can act as a diagnostic tool for retinal disease identification. Simultaneous multi-level classification of abnormal images is possible with high accuracy using artificial neural networks. The results also suggest that the approach is time-efficient, which is essential for ophthalmologic applications.
- retinal images
- diagnosis & ANN
- diagnostic tests/investigation
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Funding Foundations of Computer Science, New York, USA.
Competing interests None to declare.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.