Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome: new perspectives
  1. Ta C Chang1,
  2. C Gail Summers2,
  3. Lisa A Schimmenti2,3,
  4. Alana L Grajewski2,4
  1. 1Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
  2. 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
  3. 3Departments of Pediatrics, Genetics, Cell Biology and Development (GCD), Division of Genetics and Metabolism, Institute of Human Genetics, Center for Neurobehavioral Development and the Developmental Biology Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
  4. 4Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ta Chen Chang, Vanderbilt Eye Institute, 2006 Broadway, #301, Nashville, TN 37203, USA; tachenchang{at}


Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is a genetic disease affecting multiple organ systems. In the eye, this condition manifests with varying degrees of anterior segment dysgenesis and carries a high risk of glaucoma. Other associated systemic issues include cardiovascular outflow tract malformations, craniofacial abnormalities and pituitary abnormalities, which can result in severe endocrinological sequelae. Recent advances in molecular genetics have identified two major genes, PITX2 and FOXC1, demonstrating a wide spectrum of mutations, which aids in the molecular diagnosis of the disease, although evidence exists to implicate other loci in this condition. The management of individuals affected by Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome requires a multidisciplinary approach and would include dedicated surveillance and management of glaucoma, sensorineural hearing loss, and cardiac, endocrinological, craniofacial and orthopaedic abnormalities.

  • Axenfeld-Rieger
  • paediatric glaucoma
  • polycoria
  • glaucoma
  • embryology and development

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Literature search Keywords ‘Axenfeld’, ‘Rieger’, ‘anterior segment dysgenesis’ were searched using the PubMed database, most recently on 15 July 2011. All abstracts were browsed, and those relevant to the major topics outlined above were reviewed and summarised in the body of the text.

  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it was published Online First. The authors' acknowledgements have been added.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.