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Rasch analysis of the Indian vision function questionnaire
  1. Vijaya K Gothwal1,2,
  2. Deepak K Bagga1,2,
  3. Rebecca Sumalini1,2
  1. 1Meera and L B Deshpande Centre for Sight Enhancement, Vision Rehabilitation Centres, Hyderabad, India
  2. 2Bausch and Lomb School of Optometry, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Vijaya K Gothwal, Meera and L B Deshpande Centre for Sight Enhancement, Vision Rehabilitation Centres, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Kallam Anji Reddy Campus, L V Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad 500034, Andhra Pradesh, India; vijayagothwal{at}


Aim To investigate the psychometric properties of the three scales (general functioning, psychosocial impact, visual symptoms) of the Indian vision function questionnaire (IND–VFQ) using the Rasch measurement model.

Methods 236 visually impaired patients referred to vision rehabilitation centres were administered the 33-item IND–VFQ. Rasch analysis was used to investigate the scales for the following properties: precision by person separation (ie, discrimination between strata of patient ability, recommended minimum value 2.0), unidimensionality (ie, measurement of a single construct) and targeting (ie, matching of item difficulty to patient ability).

Results Only the general functioning scale possessed adequate measurement precision (person separation 3.49). However, it lacked unidimensionality as some items did not contribute towards the measurement of a single construct indicating a secondary dimension. This comprised seven mobility items, which formed a separate valid subscale with good targeting (−0.57 logits). Deleting these items restored unidimensionality but a misfitting item required removal. Following this the 13 items fit and were visual functioning related. However, targeting was suboptimal (−1.13 logits).

Conclusions The general functioning scale of the IND–VFQ consists of two separate unidimensional constructs: visual functioning and mobility. Both these Rasch scaled versions with good psychometric properties are effective tools for the assessment of visually impaired patients in India.

  • Indian vision function questionnaire
  • low vision aid
  • mobility
  • Rasch analysis
  • rehabilitation
  • visual functioning
  • visual impairment

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  • Funding This study was supported by the Hyderabad Eye Research Foundation, Hyderabad, India.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by the L V Prasad Eye Institute Ethics committee, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.