Aim To assess the risk factors for anxiety and depression in patients with glaucoma.
Methods Anxiety and depression in 408 patients with glaucoma were evaluated using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) questionnaire, which consists of two subscales, representing HADS-anxiety (HADS-A) and HADS-depression (HADS-D). To identify the risk factors for anxiety and depression, the stepwise and multiple linear regression analyses were carried out with the HADS-A and HADS-D subscores as dependent variables and demographic and clinical features as independent variables.
Results A stepwise linear regression analysis revealed the significantly related factors to be age for HADS-A (β=−0.046, p=0.0007) and HADS-D (β=0.035, p=0.011) and the mean deviation of the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer 30-2 (HFA30-2) in the better eye for HADS-D (β=−0.095, p=0.0026). Based on multiple linear regression analyses, significant relationships were confirmed between age and the HADS-A subscore (β=−0.046, p=0.0008). Significant relationships were also confirmed between age (β=0.037, p=0.0077) or the mean deviation of HFA30-2 in the better eye (β=−0.094, p=0.0036) and the HADS-D subscore.
Conclusion A younger age was thus found to be a risk factor for anxiety, while an older age and increasing glaucoma severity were risk factors for depression in patients with glaucoma.
- hospital anxiety and depression scale
- public health
- optic nerve
- intraocular pressure
- experimental and laboratory
- experimental and animal models
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Competing interests None.
Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by Ethics Committee of University of Yamanashi.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.