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Different antivascular endothelial growth factor treatments and regimens and their outcomes in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a literature review
  1. Paolo Lanzetta1,
  2. Paul Mitchell2,
  3. Sebastian Wolf3,
  4. Daniele Veritti1
  1. 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Udine, Udine, Italy
  2. 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
  3. 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence to Professor P Lanzetta, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Udine, Piazzale S Maria della Misericordia, Udine 33100, Italy; paolo.lanzetta{at}


Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy has revolutionised the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD). Recent research has focused on evaluating competing agents and alternative dosage regimens, providing evidence to help determine optimal treatment strategies. We therefore conducted a review of clinical research studies in wAMD published since 2008 that compared anti-VEGF dosing regimens and therapies; seven studies met our inclusion criteria. Data on baseline disease characteristics, disease outcomes, safety (ocular and systemic) and treatment burden (injection and visit frequencies) were extracted on patients treated with ranibizumab 0.5 mg, bevacizumab 1.25 mg or aflibercept 2.0 mg for up to 2 years. For ranibizumab and bevacizumab, visual and anatomical outcomes at 1 and 2 years were superior using scheduled monthly (or 4 weekly (q4w)) compared with as needed or scheduled quarterly dosing regimens. Treatment outcomes were generally better for both drugs when more aggressive retreatment criteria were used, which resulted in more frequent injections. Bevacizumab, however, was associated with a 30–35% elevated rate of serious systemic adverse events compared with ranibizumab, regardless of dosing interval; further study in larger patient populations will be required to determine the validity of this finding. Intravitreal aflibercept injection every 8 weeks was non-inferior to ranibizumab q4w on all visual and anatomical endpoints at week 52, had a similar safety profile and required five fewer anti-VEGF injections.

  • Drugs
  • Macula
  • Neovascularisation
  • Treatment Medical

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