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Battling with reflections: the Busch stereoscopic reflexless binocular ophthalmoscope
  1. Richard Keeler,
  2. Arun D Singh,
  3. Harminder S Dua

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The first attempt to view the fundus stereoscopically was made in 1861 when Felix Giraud-Teulon of Paris invented a binocular ophthalmoscope constructed by Nachet. At that time the source of illumination was from a gas or oil lamp. The instrument was difficult to use and was not popular. Although the instrument enabled detection of elevations of the retina such as retinal detachment, there was nothing the surgeon could do to remedy it. This also contributed to its lack of popularity. Surgical reattachment of the retina had to wait for another 65 years until the pioneering work of Jules Gonin.

An improved model followed in 1862 invented by …

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.