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Identification of infectious entities in idiopathic orbital inflammation biopsies
  1. Ward Rogier Bijlsma1,
  2. Rachel Kalmann1,
  3. Jojanneke Dekkers1,2,
  4. Dion Paridaens3,
  5. Maarten Philip Mourits4,
  6. Roel Kloos5,
  7. Jolanda D F de Groot-Mijnes1,2
  1. 1Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  2. 2Department of Virology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  3. 3Rotterdam Eye Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  4. 4Department of Ophthalmology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  5. 5Department of Ophthalmology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ward Rogier Bijlsma, Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3584 CX, The Netherlands; wrbijlsma{at}

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Idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI) is a poorly understood disease that can cause symptoms of pain, proptosis and diplopia. The condition is considered of non-infectious origin and a diagnosis is only made after exclusion of a neoplasm, primary infection and systemic disorders. However, a recent history of upper respiratory tract infection prior to development of IOI is not uncommon.1 It has been postulated that IOI is caused by an auto-immune response that develops after an infectious trigger.2

We investigated whether IOI may have an infectious origin by using molecular techniques to identify genetic material of a panel of viruses and bacteria in tissue biopsies of patients with IOI and controls.

After ethical review board approval, 48 orbital biopsy specimens were collected at orbital clinics in Amsterdam, Maastricht, Rotterdam …

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  • Contributors All authors have contributed to design, collection of data, manuscript drafting and finalisation.

  • Funding This research was facilitated by an unrestricted grant from the Dr F.P. Fischer Foundation, Marskramersbaan 42,3981 TK Bunnik, The Netherlands.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval University Medical Center Utrecht Ethics Committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.