Article Text

Visual comfort and fatigue when watching three-dimensional displays as measured by eye movement analysis
  1. Li Zhang1,
  2. Jie Ren1,
  3. Liang Xu1,
  4. Xue Jun Qiu1,
  5. Jost B Jonas1,2
  1. 1Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
  2. 2Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
  1. Correspondence to Professor Liang Xu, and Professor Jost B Jonas, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital University of Medical Science, 17 Hougou Lane, Chong Wen Men, Beijing 100005, China. xlbio1{at}

Statistics from


With the growth in three-dimensional viewing of movies, we assessed whether visual fatigue or alertness differed between three-dimensional (3D) viewing versus two-dimensional (2D) viewing of movies. We used a camera-based analysis of eye movements to measure blinking, fixation and saccades as surrogates of visual fatigue.1–6

Our observational crossover study included 28 subjects (age: 20–30 years) who watched a video (movie ‘Journey to the Center of the Earth’) presented for 40 min on a 3D display or 2D display. An eye tracking system (EYELINK 2000, Remote, SR Research, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada) was used to record the eye movements and pupil diameter. On one day, half the group watched a movie on a panel with a pattern-retard display technology for 3D viewing. On the next day, the participants watched …

View Full Text

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.