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Visual comfort and fatigue when watching three-dimensional displays as measured by eye movement analysis
  1. Li Zhang1,
  2. Jie Ren1,
  3. Liang Xu1,
  4. Xue Jun Qiu1,
  5. Jost B Jonas1,2
  1. 1Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
  2. 2Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
  1. Correspondence to Professor Liang Xu, and Professor Jost B Jonas, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital University of Medical Science, 17 Hougou Lane, Chong Wen Men, Beijing 100005, China. xlbio1{at}

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With the growth in three-dimensional viewing of movies, we assessed whether visual fatigue or alertness differed between three-dimensional (3D) viewing versus two-dimensional (2D) viewing of movies. We used a camera-based analysis of eye movements to measure blinking, fixation and saccades as surrogates of visual fatigue.1–6

Our observational crossover study included 28 subjects (age: 20–30 years) who watched a video (movie ‘Journey to the Center of the Earth’) presented for 40 min on a 3D display or 2D display. An eye tracking system (EYELINK 2000, Remote, SR Research, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada) was used to record the eye movements and pupil diameter. On one day, half the group watched a movie on a panel with a pattern-retard display technology for 3D viewing. On the next day, the participants watched …

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  • Contributors Design of the study: LZ, JR, LX, XJQ and JBJ: conduct of the examinations: LZ, JR, LX and XJQ: statistical analysis: LZ and JBJ; writing of the manuscript: LZ and JBJ: Approval of the manuscript: LZ, JR, LX, XJQ and JBJ.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval The Medical Ethics Committee of the Beijing Tongren Hospital approved the study protocol and all participants gave an informed consent, according to the Declaration of Helsinki.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.