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Grading in ectopia lentis (GEL): a novel classification system
  1. Aman Chandra1,2,
  2. Philip J Banerjee1,2,
  3. David G Charteris1,2
  1. 1 Vitreoretinal Department, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK
  2. 2 ORBIT, UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Aman Chandra, Vitreoretinal Department, Moorfields Eye Hospital, City Road, London EC1V2PD, UK; aman.chandra{at}

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Ectopia lentis (EL) can be caused by trauma or associated with ophthalmic and systemic disorders such as Marfan syndrome (OMIM154700), pseudoexfoliation or isolated EL (OMIM129600). It is therefore managed and researched by a wide range of physicians and scientists. To date, there is no validated method of classifying the clinical features of this condition.


A novel grading in ectopia lentis (GEL) classification system was created to encompass the possibilities of lens movement. This was assessed on anterior segment images from our hospital database of patients with EL of any aetiology. All pupils were pharmacologically dilated with a combination of tropicamide (1%) and phenylephrine (2.5%) drops. Primarily, subluxation (Sub) was defined as movement of the lens within coronal plane behind the iris, while dislocation (D) was defined as complete movement either anteriorly (DA) into the anterior chamber or posteriorly (DP) into the vitreous cavity. Subluxation was categorised by direction and …

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  • Contributors All authors contributed to the original concept, execution, manuscript drafting and final approval. All authors take responsibility for the intellectual content of the paper.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.