Article Text

How to help children with neurodevelopmental and visual problems: a scoping review
  1. C Williams1,2,
  2. K Northstone1,
  3. C Borwick1,3,
  4. M Gainsborough4,
  5. J Roe5,
  6. S Howard4,
  7. S Rogers5,
  8. J Amos4,
  9. J M Woodhouse3
  1. 1School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, Somerset, UK
  2. 2University Hospitals Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, Somerset, UK
  3. 3Cardiff School of Optometry and Vision Science, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
  4. 4Community Child Health Partnership, North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, Somerset, UK
  5. 5Children and Young People's Services, Bristol City Government, Bristol, Somerset, UK
  1. Correspondence to Cathy Williams, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Clifton, Bristol, Somerset BS8 2BN, UK; cathy.williams{at}bristol.ac.uk

Abstract

Children with visual impairment and a condition affecting their neurodevelopment (children with VND) may require extensive and specialised help but evidence on the most effective strategies for visual improvement is lacking. We defined a PICO format (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome) for a scoping review and systematically searched 13 databases. Two reviewers assessed the abstracts for inclusion and a third arbitrated in cases of disagreement. We abstracted data from included studies. We found 4450 abstracts from which we identified 107 papers for inclusion. Of these, 42 related to interventions involving a change in visual input or function: 5 controlled trials, 8 before and after studies and 29 case reports. The strongest evidence supported the provision of spectacles to improve distance or near vision and the use of ultraviolet light as environmental modification for training. Less strong but suggestive evidence supported training/practice routines to improve acuity or oculomotor control. Interventions exist to help children with VND and current recommendations that they are assessed by a vision specialist are supported by the evidence. More information is needed on the effectiveness of training/practice programmes which may promote improved function, and of environmental modifications to facilitate engagement of children with VND with the surroundings.

  • Child health (paediatrics)
  • Vision
  • Treatment other
  • Treatment Medical
  • Treatment Surgery

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Statistics from Altmetric.com

Supplementary materials

  • Supplementary Data

    This web only file has been produced by the BMJ Publishing Group from an electronic file supplied by the author(s) and has not been edited for content.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.