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Long-term outcome of primary endoresection of choroidal melanoma
  1. Lazaros Konstantinidis1,
  2. Carl Groenewald1,
  3. Sarah E Coupland2,
  4. Bertil Damato1,2,3
  1. 1St Paul's Eye Unit, Liverpool Ocular Oncology Centre, Liverpool, UK
  2. 2Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
  3. 3Ocular Oncology Service, Departments of Ophthalmology and Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Bertil Damato, Ocular Oncology Service, Departments of Ophthalmology and Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, 10 Koret Way, K304, San Francisco, CA 94143-0730, USA; DamatoB{at}


Background Endoresection of choroidal melanoma may offer the best hope of conserving vision in some patients but is controversial because of concerns regarding iatrogenic tumour dissemination.

Methods Retrospective, non-randomised study of consecutive patients who underwent endoresection for choroidal melanoma at the Liverpool Ocular Oncology Centre between 1996 and 2010.

Results The study included 71 patients with a mean age of 58.7 years. The tumour extended within 2 disc diameters of the optic disc in 46 (65%) eyes, involving the disc in 24 (34%) eyes. The mean largest basal tumour diameter and tumour thickness were 9.5 mm and 4.4 mm, respectively. The median follow-up was 4.1 years. The visual acuity at the latest follow-up was better than 6/30 in 31% eyes. The main causes of visual loss were foveal excision, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD) and proliferative vitreo-retinopathy (PVR). Local recurrence developed in two patients (3%), who were treated by enucleation and proton beam radiotherapy, respectively. RD occurred in 16 cases (22%). Three (4%) eyes were enucleated, two because of PVR and one because of local tumour recurrence. Five patients died of metastatic disease.

Conclusions Endoresection achieved high rates of local tumour control. This operation would seem to be a useful alternative to radiotherapy as a means of conserving vision in eyes with juxtapapillary melanoma.

  • Choroid
  • Neoplasia
  • Treatment Surgery

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