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Surgical simulators in cataract surgery training
  1. Shameema Sikder1,
  2. Khaled Tuwairqi2,
  3. Eman Al-Kahtani3,
  4. William G Myers4,
  5. Pat Banerjee5
  1. 1Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  2. 2College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  3. 3Department of Retina, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  4. 4Department of Ophthalmology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  5. 5College of Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Shameema Sikder, Wilmer Eye Institute, 7315 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 610-W, Bethesda, MD 20910, USA; ssikder1{at}


Background Virtual simulators have been widely implemented in medical and surgical training, including ophthalmology. The increasing number of published articles in this field mandates a review of the available results to assess current technology and explore future opportunities.

Method A PubMed search was conducted and a total of 10 articles were reviewed.

Results Virtual simulators have shown construct validity in many modules, successfully differentiating user experience levels during simulated phacoemulsification surgery. Simulators have also shown improvements in wet-lab performance. The implementation of simulators in the residency training has been associated with a decrease in cataract surgery complication rates.

Conclusions Virtual reality simulators are an effective tool in measuring performance and differentiating trainee skill level. Additionally, they may be useful in improving surgical skill and patient outcomes in cataract surgery. Future opportunities rely on taking advantage of technical improvements in simulators for education and research.

  • Medical Education
  • Treatment Surgery

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