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Treatment of recurrent corneal erosion syndrome
Chan et al compared the efficacy of alcohol delamination (ALD, 17 eyes) and phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK, 16 eyes) for the treatment of recurrent corneal erosion syndrome (RCES) in a prospective, randomised, controlled trial. There were no differences in baseline parameters between the groups. Overall, there was complete or partial resolution of symptoms in 11 (65%) eyes in the ALD group and 10 (63%) eyes in the PTK group. In this study, the two treatment methods were equally successful in reducing the symptoms of RCES with a similar number of eyes experiencing complete or partial resolution of symptoms.
Pazopanib eye drops for neovascular AMD
Danis et al evaluated pazopanib eye drops in patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation secondary to age related macular degeneration (AMD). Seventy patients were randomly assigned to 5 mg/mL TID, 2 mg/mL TID, and 5 mg/mL QD pazopanib eye drops for 28 days. Overall, no significant decrease in central retinal thickness from baseline was observed. 5 mg/mL pazopanib eye drops resulted in mean improvement in BCVA at Day 29. Improvement in CRT was observed only in the subset of subjects with the CFH Y402H TT genotype, warranting further investigation.
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Caucasian patients
Hatz and Prünte determined the prevalence of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in patients with presumed neovascular AMD who were considered poor responders to ranibizumab. Eyes were categorised according to the time from injection 1–6 (group 1: <12 months; group 2: ≥12 months). Indocyanine green angiography was used to re-evaluate eyes for PCV. Two-hundred and two eyes were included (group 1: 74%; group 2: 26%). The prevalence of PCV in group 1 (21.5%) was significantly higher than in group 2 (3.8%). In Caucasian patients with presumed neovascular AMD, PCV prevalence is greater in eyes that respond poorly to ranibizumab monotherapy.
Changes in choroid by optical coherence tomography after haemodialysis
Jung et al examined changes in the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and choroidal density using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) before and after haemodialysis (HD) in 28 eyes of 19 patients with chronic renal failure. The SFCT became thicker and the choroidal extravascular density increased after HD. The decrease in systolic blood pressure after HD was associated with an increase in SFCT. Shifting of fluid and molecules between the blood and choroidal interstitium might be involved in causing these choroidal changes.
BAP1 germline mutation in familial uveal melanoma
Familial uveal melanoma (UM) is rare and accounts for about 0.6–6% of all patients with melanoma. However, BAP1 germline mutations have been identified in rare hereditary tumour syndromes, including cases with UM. Maerker et al identified two family members (mother and son) diagnosed with UM that had a cosegregating BAP1 germline mutation (c.299 T>C). The mutant BAP1 allele was retained in the tumour of the son showing monosomy three. The son further developed urothelial carcinoma and liver metastasis, the mother was affected by the UM and cholangiocellular carcinoma.
Infants born to drug-misusing mothers prescribed methadone in pregnancy
McGlone et al describe visual and electrophysiological outcomes at 6 months in 81 drug-exposed and 26 comparison infants. Ninety per cent of drug-exposed infants had been additionally exposed to illicit drugs and 41% to excess alcohol in utero. Forty per cent of the drug-exposed cohort failed clinical visual assessment. Nystagmus was common. VEP peak times were slower and amplitudes smaller in drug-exposed infants, of whom 70% had one or more abnormal VEP parameter.
Vascular endothelial growth factor suppression times with diabetic macular oedema treated with ranibizumab
Muether, Droege, and Fauser measured vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in aqueous humour from 17 patients (17 eyes) with diabetic macular oedema treated with ranibizumab to determine duration of VEGF suppression. A total of 110 aqueous humour samples were taken before an intravitreal ranibizumab injection. VEGF was completely suppressed in all patients after ranibizumab injections for a mean duration of 33.7 days. The long-term stability and the range of suppression times among individuals suggest that some patients could benefit from individualised injection intervals.
Effect of nicotine on choroidal thickness
Zengin, Cinar, and Kucukerdonmez investigated the effect of nicotine on choroidal thickness using OCT in a prospective, case–control study of 16 young, healthy subjects and 16 age and gender matched controls. The study participants received either 4 mg nicotine or placebo. All participants underwent OCT scanning at baseline, and 1 h following nicotine or placebo administration. The measurements were taken in the morning (10:00–12:00 h) to avoid diurnal fluctuation. The median foveal choroidal thickness at baseline (337 μm) decreased to 311.00 μm at 1 h following oral nicotine intake. The median choroidal thickness was also significantly decreased at five other extrafoveal points. This acute decrease in choroidal thickness might be a result of reduced ocular blood flow due to the vasoconstrictive effect of nicotine.