Article Text

Download PDFPDF

Decreased tear volume in patients with metabolic syndrome: the Osaka study
  1. Motoko Kawashima1,
  2. Miki Uchino1,
  3. Norihiko Yokoi2,
  4. Murat Dogru1,
  5. Yuichi Uchino1,
  6. Aoi Komuro2,
  7. Yukiko Sonomura2,
  8. Hiroaki Kato2,
  9. Shigeru Kinoshita2,
  10. Kazuo Tsubota1
  1. 1 Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
  2. 2 Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Motoko Kawashima, Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan; motoko-k{at}

Statistics from

Dry eye is highly prevalent worldwide and its incidence is known to increase with age. Several clinical studies have demonstrated reduced tear secretion in older people, indicating that lacrimal gland function decreases gradually with age.1

It has been reported that Excess caloric intake accelerates the aging process, and increases the risks for age-related diseases.2 Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder defined by a cluster of interconnected factors that increase the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, dry eye is often overlooked in this context and no study has investigated whether tear secretion decreases in MetS.


A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 among all employees of a company in Osaka, Japan (N=672; age range 26–64 years). Tear volume was measured using the Schirmer 1 method. Participants aged ≥40 years were also examined for MetS.3 MetS was diagnosed using the Japanese criteria defined in 2008. Briefly, the …

View Full Text

Supplementary materials

  • Supplementary Data

    This web only file has been produced by the BMJ Publishing Group from an electronic file supplied by the author(s) and has not been edited for content.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.