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Peripheral refraction in 7- and 14-year-old children in central China: the Anyang Childhood Eye Study
  1. Shi-Ming Li1,
  2. Si-Yuan Li1,
  3. Luo-Ru Liu2,
  4. Yue-Hua Zhou1,
  5. Zhou Yang1,
  6. Meng-Tian Kang1,
  7. He Li2,
  8. Xiao-Yuan Yang3,
  9. Yi-Peng Wang2,
  10. Si-Yan Zhan4,
  11. Paul Mitchell5,
  12. Ningli Wang1,
  13. David A Atchison6,
  14. the Anyang Childhood Eye Study Group
  1. 1Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
  2. 2Anyang Eye Hospital, Henan Province, China
  3. 3Department of Ophthalmology, Zhengzhou Second Hospital, HenanProvince, China
  4. 4Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing, China
  5. 5Department of Ophthalmology and Westmead Millennium Institute, Centre for Vision Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
  6. 6School of Optometry & Vision Science and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Queensland, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ningli Wang, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China; wningli{at}


Purpose To determine the distribution of peripheral refraction, including astigmatism, in 7- and 14-year-old Chinese children.

Methods 2134 7-year-old and 1780 14-year-old children were measured with cycloplegic central and horizontal peripheral refraction (15° and 30° at temporal and nasal visual fields).

Results 7- and 14-year-old children included 9 and 594, respectively, with moderate and high myopia (≤−3.0 D), 259 and 831 with low myopia (−2.99 to −0.5 D), 1207 and 305 with emmetropia (−0.49 to +1.0 D), and 659 and 50 with hyperopia (>1.0 D), respectively. Myopic children had relative peripheral hyperopia while hyperopic and emmetropic children had relative peripheral myopia, with greater changes in relative peripheral refraction occurring in the nasal than the temporal visual field. The older group had the greater relative peripheral hyperopia and higher peripheral J180. Both age groups showed positive slopes of J45 across the visual field, with greater slopes in the older group.

Conclusions Myopic children in mainland China have relative peripheral hyperopia while hyperopic and emmetropic children have relative peripheral myopia. Significant differences exist between 7- and 14-year-old children, with the latter showing more relative peripheral hyperopia, greater rate of change in J45 across the visual field, and higher peripheral J180.

  • Epidemiology
  • Optics and Refraction

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