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Teenagers' perceptions of blindness related to smoking - novel message to a vulnerable group
  1. Phillip Moradi (pmoradi{at},
  2. Judith Thornton (judith.thornton{at},
  3. Richard Edwards (richard.edwards{at},
  4. Roger A Harrison (roger.harrison{at},
  5. Stephen Washington (stephen.washington1{at},
  6. Simon P Kelly (simon.kelly{at}
  1. Bolton Eye Unit, Bolton Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom
  2. Evidence for Population Health Unit, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
  3. Department of Public Health, Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, New Zealand
  4. Evidence for Population Health Unit, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
  5. Salford Royal NHS Trust, United Kingdom
  6. Bolton Eye Unit, Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom


    Background: Cigarette smoking often starts in teenage years. It is not known whether teenagers are aware of the association of smoking with eye disease and blindness. We explored knowledge of this link and the likely impact of that knowledge amongst UK teenagers.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a structured interview of teenagers attending four organised social events. Awareness and fear of blindness, and of three smoking-related diseases (lung cancer, heart disease, stroke) and a distractor condition (deafness) was investigated. The likelihood that smokers would quit on developing early signs of each condition was determined.

    Results: A 92% 'opt in' response rate was achieved. Out of 260 teenagers (16-18 years), 15%, 27% and 81% believed smoking caused stroke, heart disease and lung cancer, respectively. Only 5% believed smoking caused blindness. Subjects ranked their fear of each of the five conditions, scoring five for the most feared and one for the least feared. Subjects were significantly (p<0.01) more fearful (mean scores in brackets) of blindness (4.2) than of lung cancer (3.4), heart disease (2.3) and deafness (1.2). More teenagers (p<0.01) said they would stop smoking with the early signs of blindness compared with early signs of lung or heart disease.

    Conclusions: Awareness of the risk from blindness from smoking is low among teenagers, but fear of blindness may be more likely to motivate teenagers to stop smoking than fear of lung or heart disease. Teenagers should be made more aware of the ocular risks of cigarette smoking as a novel public health measure.

    • eye
    • health promotion
    • smoking
    • smoking cessation
    • teenagers

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