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Time course of changes in ocular wavefront aberration after instillation of 0.5% timolol gel-forming solution
  1. Takahiro Hiraoka1,*,
  2. Masakazu Daito1,
  3. Fumiki Okamoto1,
  4. Takahiro Kiuchi1,
  5. Yoko Hirohara2,
  6. Toshifumi Mihashi2,
  7. Tetsuro Oshika1
  1. 1 Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Japan;
  2. 2 Technical Research Institute, Topcon Corporation, Japan
  1. Correspondence to: Takahiro Hiraoka, Ophthalmology, Clinical Medicine, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8575, Japan; thiraoka{at}


Aims: ETo investigate the influence of 0.5% timolol gel-forming solution on ocular wavefront aberrations.

Methods: EIn 17 normal volunteers, ocular aberration was assessed before and 5, 30 minutes, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 hours after instillation of timolol gel-forming solution. Ocular aberration was sequentially measured over a period of 10 seconds, and the root-mean-square (RMS) of the second-, third-, fourth-, and total higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were determined. From the time course of changes in total HOAs in 10 seconds, the stability index (SI) and fluctuation index (FI) were calculated. We also investigated sequential changes in specific Zernike components such as vertical coma, horizontal coma, and spherical aberration.

Results: ENo significant changes in second-order RMS were observed (P = 0.452, repeated-measures ANOVA). Topical instillation significantly increased HOAs such as third-, fourth-, and total higher-order RMS (P = 0.023, P = 0.007, and P = 0.003, respectively). Multiple comparison analysis revealed significant increases in HOAs 5 minutes after instillation (P = 0.005 for third-, P = 0.001 for fourth-, and P < 0.001 for total higher-order RMS, Dunnett post-hoc test). FI increased significantly 5 minutes after instillation (P = 0.013), but SI did not change significantly. With respect to sequential changes in specific components, significant changes were observed in vertical coma (P = 0.004, repeated-measures ANOVA) and horizontal coma (P = 0.005), but not in spherical aberration.

Conclusion: EInstillation of timolol gel-forming solution significantly degrades optical quality of the eye for approximately 5 minutes by increasing HOAs, which may cause blurred vision.

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