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Current treatment options for retinal angiomatous proliferans (RAP)
  1. Bhaskar M gupta1,
  2. Sreedhar Jyothi1,
  3. Sobha Sivaprasad2,*
  1. 1 King's College Hospital, NHS Trust, United Kingdom;
  2. 2 Consultant Ophthalmologist, United Kingdom
  1. Correspondence to: Sobha Sivaprasad, Laser and Retinal Research Unit, Consultant Ophthalmologist, Laser and Retinal Research Unit, King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, SE5 9RS, United Kingdom; senswathi{at}


Retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) accounts for 12-15% of all patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration (NV-AMD). However, this subtype is often excluded from clinical trials aimed at assessing the efficacy of various treatment options for NV-AMD. So, there are no established protocols for the management of RAP. This review of current literature on RAP compares the outcomes of various treatment options for this condition and highlights the lack of clinical trials and paucity of long-term data on this relatively common condition.

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