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A review of the surgical options for the correction of presbyopia
  1. Raquel Gil-Cazorla1,2,
  2. Sunil Shah1,2,3,
  3. Shehzad A Naroo1
  1. 1Ophthalmic Research Group, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Midland Eye, Solihull, UK
  3. 3Birmingham and Midland Eye Centre, City Hospital, Birmingham, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Shehzad A Naroo, Ophthalmic Research Group, Aston University, Aston Street, Birmingham, West Midlands B4 7ET, UK; s.a.naroo{at}


Presbyopia is an age-related eye condition where one of the signs is the reduction in the amplitude of accommodation, resulting in the loss of ability to change the eye's focus from far to near. It is the most common age-related ailments affecting everyone around their mid-40s. Methods for the correction of presbyopia include contact lens and spectacle options but the surgical correction of presbyopia still remains a significant challenge for refractive surgeons. Surgical strategies for dealing with presbyopia may be extraocular (corneal or scleral) or intraocular (removal and replacement of the crystalline lens or some type of treatment on the crystalline lens itself). There are however a number of limitations and considerations that have limited the widespread acceptance of surgical correction of presbyopia. Each surgical strategy presents its own unique set of advantages and disadvantages. For example, lens removal and replacement with an intraocular lens may not be preferable in a young patient with presbyopia without a refractive error. Similarly treatment on the crystalline lens may not be a suitable choice for a patient with early signs of cataract. This article is a review of the options available and those that are in development stages and are likely to be available in the near future for the surgical correction of presbyopia.

  • Cornea
  • Lens and zonules
  • Sclera and Episclera
  • Treatment Lasers
  • Optics and Refraction

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