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Optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of foveal microvascular changes and inner retinal layer thinning in patients with diabetes
  1. Kiyoung Kim,
  2. Eung Suk Kim,
  3. Seung-Young Yu
  1. Department of Ophthalmology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea
  1. Correspondence to Professor Seung-Young Yu, Department of Ophthalmology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, South Korea; syyu{at}khu.ac.kr

Abstract

Aim To evaluate the correlation between inner retinal layer thinning and the foveal microvasculature in type 2 diabetes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

Methods A cross-sectional study involved 155 diabetic eyes. All patients were divided into two groups based on diabetic retinopathy (DR) grade: no DR (NDR, n=80) and mild-to-moderate non-proliferative DR (NPDR, n=75). Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, FAZ circularity index, FAZ perimeter, vessel density and perfusion index of parafoveal and perifoveal area were calculated using OCTA. The thickness of the macular ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL) was measured using OCT.

Results In both superficial and deep retinal capillary layers (SRL and DRL), FAZ areas in the NDR (0.38 mm2 , 0.49 mm2) and NPDR (0.38 mm2, 0.48 mm2) were greater than those in the control (0.33 mm2, 0.43 mm2). The FAZ circularity index, vessel density and perfusion index in the NDR (0.63, 17.8/mm, 0.32) and NPDR (0.63, 17.5/mm, 0.32) were smaller than those in the control (0.69, 19.6/mm, 0.39). mGCIPL thickness was significantly correlated with FAZ area in the SRL and DRL, as well as with FAZ circularity index, vessel density and perfusion index in the NDR and NPDR. In multivariate regression analysis, the FAZ circularity index (OR=12.2) and vessel density of the parafovea (OR=1.95) were correlated with mGCIPL thinning.

Conclusion OCTA revealed that early foveal microcirculatory alterations in diabetic eyes were related to mGCIPL thickness, regardless of the presence of DR. The decrease in FAZ circularity and parafoveal vessel density were highly correlated with mGCIPL thinning.

  • retina
  • diagnostic tests/investigation
  • imaging
  • macula

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Footnotes

  • Contributors Study concept and design: all authors. Acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data: KK and ESK. Drafting of manuscript: KK. Critical revision of manuscript: KK and S-YY.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Kyung Hee University Hospital and conformed to the Declaration of Helsinki.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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