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Glaucoma in myopia: diagnostic dilemmas

Abstract

Myopic eyes have an increased risk of glaucoma. However, glaucomatous changes in a myopic eye are often difficult to detect. Classic structural and functional investigations to diagnose glaucoma may be confounded by myopia. Here, we identify some of the common pitfalls in interpreting these structural parameters, and the possible solutions that could be taken to overcome them. For instance, in myopic eyes, we discuss the limitations and potential sources of error when using neuroretinal rim parameters, and retinal nerve fibre layer and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measurements. In addition, we also review new developments and potential adjuncts in structural imaging such as the assessment of the retinal nerve fibre layer texture, and the examination of the microcirculation of the optic nerve head using optical coherence tomography angiography. For the functional assessment of glaucoma, we discuss perimetric strategies that may aid in detecting characteristic visual field defects in myopic glaucoma. Ultimately, the evaluation of glaucoma in myopia requires a multimodal approach, to allow correlation between structural and functional assessments. This review provides overview on how to navigate this diagnostic dilemma.

  • glaucoma
  • optic nerve
  • diagnostic tests/investigation
  • imaging
  • perimetry
  • myopia
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