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Long-term functional outcomes of different subtypes of primary congenital glaucoma
  1. Richard Sher Chaudhary,
  2. Amisha Gupta,
  3. Ajay Sharma,
  4. Shikha Gupta,
  5. Rayees Ahmad Sofi,
  6. Dheepak Sundar,
  7. Ramanjit Sihota,
  8. Bindu I Somarajan,
  9. Abhishek Singh,
  10. Rahul Sangwan,
  11. Viney Gupta
  1. Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All india Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Viney Gupta, All india Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; gupta_v20032000{at}


Aim To analyse long-term visual outcomes across different subtypes of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG).

Methods Patients with PCG with a minimum of 5-year follow-up post surgery were included in the study. Snellen visual acuity recordings taken at their last follow-up were analysed. We evaluated the results using Kaplan-Meier curves to predict the probability of maintaining good vision (as defined by a visual acuity of 6/18 or better) in our patients after 30-year follow-up. The results were also analysed to determine whether there were any differences in the long-term visual acuities with time between the neonatal and infantile PCG. We also analysed the reasons for poor visual outcomes.

Results We assessed a cohort of 140 patients with PCG (235 eyes) with an average follow-up of 127±62.8 months (range 60–400 months). Overall, the proportion of eyes with good visual acuity was 89 (37.9%), those with fair visual acuity between 6/60 and 6/18 was 41 (17.4%), and those with poor visual acuity (≤6/60) was 105 (44.7%). We found a significant difference (p=0.047) between neonatal and infantile patients with PCG whereby the neonatal cohort fared worse off in terms of visual morbidity. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, the cumulative probability of survival of a visual acuity of 6/18 or better was more among the infantile PCG in comparison to the neonatal PCG (p=0.039) eyes, and more among the bilateral than the unilateral affected eyes (p=0.029). Amblyopia was the most important cause for poor visual acuity as shown on a Cox proportional-hazards regression model .

Conclusions Long-term visual outcomes of infantile are better than neonatal PCG. Eyes with unilateral have worse visual outcomes compared with those with bilateral PCG because of the development of dense amblyopia.

  • Glaucoma
  • Vision
  • Optic Nerve

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  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval The study followed the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by our Institutional Ethics committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available upon request.