Article Text

other Versions

Download PDFPDF
Prevalence of myopic macular degeneration worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis
  1. Minjie Zou1,2,
  2. Shibin Wang3,
  3. Aiming Chen4,
  4. Zhenzhen Liu1,
  5. Charlotte Aimee Young5,
  6. Yichi Zhang6,
  7. Guangming Jin1,
  8. Danying Zheng1
  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China
  2. 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
  3. 3Guangdong Mental Health Center, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China
  4. 4Department of Pharmacy, Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China
  5. 5Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
  6. 6Department of Ophthalmology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
  1. Correspondence to Dr Guangming Jin, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China; guangming27050103{at}; Dr Danying Zheng, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China; zhengdyy{at}


Purpose To investigate the prevalence of myopic macular degeneration (MMD) in the global population.

Methods All published literature of population-based studies on MMD prevalence worldwide were searched and only those with clear definitions to diagnose and classify MMD lesions by standardised grading methods were selected. Meta-analysis methods were used to calculate the pooled prevalence of MMD and its 95% CI in a random-effects model. The prevalence of MMD lesions would also be reported, together with the subgroup analysis of age, region and gender. Correlation between MMD prevalence and spherical equivalent levels and axial length were also evaluated.

Results 12 studies with 58 558 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of MMD in the world population was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.3% to 3.3%). In the subgroup analysis, people with the following characteristics were at higher risk of developing MMD: female, urban life, living in Asia, older age, longer axial length and severer myopia.

Conclusions MMD is a serious public health concern worldwide, particularly in subjects who are women, subjects living in urban areas, subjects living in Asia, and subjects with longer axial lengths and severer myopia. Further studies from other continents/ethnicities are needed for comprehensive estimates of the prevalence of MMD globally.

  • myopic macular degeneration
  • meta-analysis
  • prevalence

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • MZ and SW are joint first authors.

  • Contributors GJ and DZ: designed the study, initiated the collaborative project, revised the paper. MZ, SW and ZL: monitored data collection, wrote the statistical analysis plan and drafted the paper. AC, CAY and YZ: cleaned and analysed the data. GJ and DZ: administrative, technical or logistic support.

  • Funding This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81873673, 81900841) and the Fundamental Research Funds of the State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available upon reasonable request. Data are available upon reasonable request to email

Linked Articles

  • At a glance
    Keith Barton James Chodosh Jost B Jonas