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OCT-A characterisation of recurrent type 3 macular neovascularisation

Abstract

Purpose To investigate optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) findings in recurrent type 3 macular neovascularisation (MNV).

Methods In this retrospective cohort study, consecutive patients with type 3 MNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration underwent OCT-A at three different time points: baseline, after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment with complete resolution of the exudative signs (ie, non-exudative stage) and at the recurrence of exudation (ie, recurrence stage). Demographics and clinical findings were analysed, including OCT-A features of type 3 MNV recurrence.

Results Twelve eyes (12 patients, mean age 78±7 years) were included. Using OCT-A, at baseline all type 3 MNVs showed the presence of detectable flow downgrowing from the deep vascular complex (DVC) to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/sub-RPE space. 6/12 eyes (50%) showed anomalous flow under the RPE, while the other 6 eyes showed flow reaching the RPE without anomalous flow in the sub-RPE space. At the non-exudative stage (after treatment), BCVA and CMT significantly improved (p=0.004 and p=0.036), and flow inside the retinal lesions reduced; interestingly the connection to the RPE/sub-RPE space regressed. At the time of recurrence, all type 3 MNVs showed the presence of intra/sub-retinal exudation with restoration of the flow deepening from the DVC to the RPE/sub-RPE space.

Conclusions Detectable flow deepening from the DVC to the RPE/sub-RPE space using OCT-A is mandatory to have a new exudation secondary to recurrent type 3 MNV. Early detection of type 3 MNV recurrence by OCT-A characterisation may prompt retreatment and potentially prevent progression to late stages of the disease.

  • imaging
  • macula
  • retina
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