Myopia is an emerging public health issue with potentially significant economic and social impact, especially in East Asia. However, many uncertainties about myopia and its clinical management remain. The International Myopia Summit workgroup was convened by the Singapore Eye Research Institute, the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in 2019. The aim of this workgroup was to summarise available evidence, identify gaps or unmet needs and provide consensus on future directions for clinical research in myopia. In this review, among the many ‘controversies in myopia’ discussed, we highlight three main areas of consensus. First, development of interventions for the prevention of axial elongation and pathologic myopia is needed, which may require a multifaceted approach targeting the Bruch’s membrane, choroid and/or sclera. Second, clinical myopia management requires co-operation between optometrists and ophthalmologists to provide patients with holistic care and a tailored approach that balances risks and benefits of treatment by using optical and pharmacological interventions. Third, current diagnostic technologies to detect myopic complications may be improved through collaboration between clinicians, researchers and industry. There is an unmet need to develop new imaging modalities for both structural and functional analyses and to establish normative databases for myopic eyes. In conclusion, the workgroup’s call to action advocated for a paradigm shift towards a collaborative approach in the holistic clinical management of myopia.
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Contributors Conception and design of the study, drafting the manuscript and approval of the version of the manuscript to be published: CWW, LLF, TYW and MA. Analysis and/or interpretation of data, revising the manuscript critically for important intellectual content and approval of the version of the manuscript to be published: PM, IM, AM, AD, DK, MH, PS, JFZ, PH, DT, SMS, CYC, ELL, JGC, GCMC, CS, CMLC, DWKW, SYL, RA, QVH, SX, AK, CN, HC, PCW, AC and JBJ.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests Jost B Jonas: Advisory Board Novartis; Patent holder with Biocompatibles UK (Farnham, Surrey, UK) (Treatment of eye diseases using encapsulated cells encoding and secreting neuroprotective factor and/or anti-angiogenic factor; Patent number: 20120263794), and Europäische Patentanmeldung 16 720 043.5 and Patent application US 2019 0085065 A1 Agents for use in the therapeutic or prophylactic treatment of myopia or hyperopia).
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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