Purpose To estimate the disease burden due to intraocular foreign bodies (IOFBs) and evaluate contributions of various risk factors to IOFB-associated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs).
Methods Global, regional and country-level number, rate and age-standardised rate of DALYs due to IOFBs were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 database. The Human Development Index (HDI) and other region and country-level data were obtained from open databases. Time trends for number, rate and age-standardised rate of DALYs due to IOFBs were calculated. Regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between age-standardised rate of DALYs and potential predictors.
Results Global DALYs due to IOFBs rose by 43.7% between 1990 (139 (95% CI 70.8 to 233) thousand) and 2017 (202 (95% CI 105 to 335) thousand). The DALY rate remained stable while the age-standardised rate decreased during this period. Higher disease burden due to IOFBs was associated with higher glaucoma prevalence (β=0.006, 95% CI 0.003 to 0.09, p<0.001), lower refractive error prevalence (β=−0.0005, 95% CI −0.0007 to −0.0002, p<0.001), and lower income (β=−0.020, 95% CI −0.035 to −0.006, p=0.007).
Conclusion Predictors of a greater burden of IOFB disability generally point to lower socioeconomic level. The association with glaucoma may reflect a complication of IOFB, increasing risk of vision loss and disability.
- public health
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GJ, MZ and YZ are joint first authors.
Contributors Conception and design: DZ and NC; Analysis and interpretation: YZ, AC, CAY, YL and LJ; Writing of the article: GJ, MZ and YZ; Critical revision of the article: DZ and NC; Data collection: GJ, MZ and YZ; Administrative, technical or logistical support: DZ and NC.
Funding This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81873673, 81900841) and the Fundamental Research Funds of the State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology(30306020240020212). GJ receives support from the Young Teachers Training Program of Sun Yat-sen University(20ykpy143). NC is supported by the Ulverscroft Foundation (UK).
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Competing interests NC declares that he is Director of Research for Orbis International, a non-governmental organisation working in global eye health, including reducing the burden of ocular trauma.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The study was approved by the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Institutional Review Board and the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki were observed throughout.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available on reasonable request. All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as online supplemental information. Data could be obtained by contact the corresponding authors by email.
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