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Predicting the safety zone for steroid-induced ocular hypertension induced by intravitreal dexamethasone implantation

Abstract

Background/aims This study aimed to predict the possibility of steroid-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) after intravitreal dexamethasone (DEX) implantation and to identify a proper safety zone for such injections.

Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted and included 908 patient eyes that underwent DEX implant injection due to various retinal diseases. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured before injection, at 1 week, and at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months thereafter. Eyes of enrolled patients were divided into the OHT and normal IOP groups. Univariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess significant associations between steroid-induced OHT and covariates; significant and previously reported significant variables were analysed with a multivariable model, and predictive nomograms were developed.

Results Age, sex, axial length, glaucomatous eye, neovascular glaucoma, secondary glaucoma, uveitis history, hypertension, depression, diabetes mellitus and a history of previous laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis or laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy were significantly related to steroid-induced OHT (p<0.05). The calibration plot revealed good prediction under a predicted value of 0.4. Cut-off values for 80%, 86%, 91%, 95% and 98% sensitivity and specificity were offered for the safety zone after intravitreal DEX implantation.

Conclusion We developed two nomograms to predict a safety zone for intravitreal DEX implantation. These can be used to identify individuals who may be safely prescribed steroid treatments and for whom extra caution should be exercised.

  • intraocular pressure
  • drugs
  • glaucoma
  • retina

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