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Association of polymorphisms in ZFHX1B, KCNQ5 and GJD2 with myopia progression and polygenic risk prediction in children

Abstract

Aims To assess the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with myopia progression for polygenic risk prediction in children.

Methods Six SNPs (ZC3H11B rs4373767, ZFHX1B rs13382811, KCNQ5 rs7744813, MET rs2073560, SNTB1 rs7839488 and GJD2 rs524952) were analysed in 1043 school children, who completed 3-year follow-up, using TaqMan genotyping assays. SNP associations with progression in spherical equivalent (SE) were analysed by logistic regression. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were applied for computing the sum of the risk alleles of multiple SNPs corresponding to myopia progression, weighted by the effect sizes of corresponding SNPs.

Results GJD2 rs524952 showed significant association with fast progression (OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.59; p=0.003) and KCNQ5 rs7744813 had nominal association (OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.67; p=0.02). In quantitative traits locus analysis, GJD2 rs524952 and KCNQ5 rs7744813 were associated with progression in SE (β=−0.038 D/year, p=0.008 and β=−0.042 D/year, p=0.02) and axial elongation (β=0.016 mm/year, p=0.01 and β=0.017 mm/year, p=0.027). ZFHX1B rs13382811 also showed nominal association with faster progression in SE (β=−0.041 D/year, p=0.02). PRS analysis showed that children with the highest PRS defined by rs13382811, rs7744813 and rs524952 had a 2.26-fold of increased risk of fast myopia progression (p=4.61×10−5). PRS was also significantly associated with SE progression (R2=1.6%, p=3.15×10−5) and axial elongation (R2=1.2%, p=2.6×10−4).

Conclusions In this study, multi-tiered evidence suggested SNPs in ZFHX1B, KCNQ5 and GJD2 as risk factors for myopia progression in children. Additional attention and appropriate interventions should be given for myopic children with high-risk PRS as defined by GJD2 rs524952, KCNQ5 rs7744813 and ZFHX1B rs13382811.

  • genetics
  • optics and refraction

Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information. N/A.

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