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Impaired vision and physical activity in childhood and adolescence: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study
  1. Lisanne Andra Horvat-Gitsels1,2,
  2. Mario Cortina-Borja1,
  3. Ameenat Lola Solebo1,2,3,
  4. Jugnoo Sangeeta Rahi1,2,3,4,5
  1. 1Population, Policy and Practice Research and Teaching Department, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health Population Policy and Practice, London, UK
  2. 2Ulverscroft Vision Research Group, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health Population Policy and Practice, London, UK
  3. 3Ophthalmology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK
  4. 4Institute of Ophthalmology, UCL, London, UK
  5. 5NIHR Moorfields Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Professor Jugnoo Sangeeta Rahi, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health Population Policy and Practice, London WC1N 1EH, UK; j.rahi{at}ucl.ac.uk

Abstract

Background/aims Investigate if impaired vision is associated with reduced levels and differences in types of physical activity (PA) to identify barriers or enablers to achieving healthy PA levels.

Methods Data from the Millennium Cohort Study of children born in the UK in 2000–2001 and followed-up to age 14 years (n=11 571). Using parental report on eye conditions coded by clinicians, children were categorised as having no, unilateral or bilateral impaired vision. Outcomes included objective accelerometer-derived time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and 16 PA types reported by parents, teachers and/or participants, covering physical education (PE), organised sports, self-organised sports and hobbies.

Results Overall, 50% of 7-year-olds and subsequently 41% as 14-year-olds achieved the internationally recommended level of ≥60 MVPA min/day, irrespective of vision status, and mainly attributable to PE and organised sports. Bilateral impaired vision (vs none) was associated with parent-reported difficulties with PE (adjusted OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 2.31 to 9.41), self-rated poor ability in PE (3.21; 1.44 to 7.15) and not enjoy indoor PA (0.48; 0.26 to 0.88). Unilateral impaired vision was associated with both parent-rated difficulties (1.80; 1.26 to 2.59) and teachers’ perception of low ability in PE (2.27; 1.57 to 3.28), and reduced odds of high participation in organised sports (0.77; 0.59 to 0.99). Age-related trajectories showed suboptimal PA in childhood tracked into adolescence, with no difference by vision status.

Conclusion Population-wide programmes to increase PA levels in children should pay special attention to those with impaired vision and include early interventions to encourage participation and confidence in PE and organised sports, starting in primary school and maintained afterwards.

  • epidemiology
  • vision

Data availability statement

Data are freely available from the UK Data Service, https://beta.ukdataservice.ac.uk/datacatalogue/series/series?id=2000031%23!/access-data. For this study, we utilised the first six surveys (MCS1-6 SN:4683, 5350, 5795, 6411, 7464, and 8156). We had special access privileges as co-investigators on the CLOSER grant to the original parental report on eye conditions (variable EYEX in MCS2-4). Access is otherwise obtained via https://www.closer.ac.uk/study/millennium-cohort-study/. Information on eye conditions was included in the coding of longstanding illness (variable CLSI in MCS2-4) that is present in the freely available survey data from the UK Data Archive. The longstanding illness is based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th version (ICD-10).

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Data availability statement

Data are freely available from the UK Data Service, https://beta.ukdataservice.ac.uk/datacatalogue/series/series?id=2000031%23!/access-data. For this study, we utilised the first six surveys (MCS1-6 SN:4683, 5350, 5795, 6411, 7464, and 8156). We had special access privileges as co-investigators on the CLOSER grant to the original parental report on eye conditions (variable EYEX in MCS2-4). Access is otherwise obtained via https://www.closer.ac.uk/study/millennium-cohort-study/. Information on eye conditions was included in the coding of longstanding illness (variable CLSI in MCS2-4) that is present in the freely available survey data from the UK Data Archive. The longstanding illness is based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th version (ICD-10).

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Footnotes

  • Twitter @cortina_borja, @lolaeyedoc, @Rahi_Eye_Vision

  • Contributors LAH-G contributed to the design of the study, and was accountable for data analysis and interpretation, preparation of the manuscript and final manuscript approval. MC-B contributed to the data analysis and interpretation, and critical revision of the manuscript. ALS contributed to the design of the study, data interpretation and critical revision of the manuscript. JSR was accountable for the design of the study, data interpretation and critical revision of the manuscript. JSR is guarantor.

  • Funding LAH-G is supported by the Ulverscroft Vision Research Group. ALS is supported by an National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Clinician Scientist award (CS-2018–18-ST2-005). JSR is an NIHR Senior Investigator and is supported by the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology. All research at Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health is made possible by the NIHR Great Ormond Street Hospital Biomedical Research Centre.

  • Disclaimer The sponsors had no role in the design or conduct of this research. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.

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