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Machine learning identifying peripheral circulating metabolites associated with intraocular pressure alterations


Aims To identify blood metabolite markers associated with intraocular pressure (IOP) in a population-based cross-sectional study.

Methods This study was conducted in a multiethnic Asian population (Chinese, n=2805; Indians, n=3045; Malays, n=3041 aged 40–80 years) in Singapore. All subjects underwent standardised systemic and ocular examinations, and biosamples were collected. Selected metabolites (n=228) in either serum or plasma were analysed and quantified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression was used for metabolites selection. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between metabolites and IOP in each of the three ethnic groups, followed by a meta-analysis combining the three cohorts.

Results Six metabolites, including albumin, glucose, lactate, glutamine, ratio of saturated fatty acids to total fatty acids (SFAFA) and cholesterol esters in very large high-density lipoprotein (HDL), were significantly associated with IOP in all three cohorts. Higher levels of albumin (per SD, beta=0.24, p=0.002), lactate (per SD, beta=0.27, p=0.008), glucose (per SD, beta=0.11, p=0.010) and cholesterol esters in very large HDL (per SD, beta=0.47, p=0.006), along with lower levels of glutamine (per SD, beta=0.17, p<0.001) and SFAFA (per SD, beta=0.21, p=0.008) were associated with higher IOP levels.

Conclusion We identify several novel blood metabolites associated with IOP. These findings may provide insight into the physiological and pathological processes underlying IOP control.

  • Intraocular pressure
  • Glaucoma

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request.

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