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Mauschitz et al. (1) conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association of systemic medications with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the general population. A pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of lipid-lowering drugs (LLD) and antidiabetic drugs for any AMD were 0.85 (0.79 to 0.91) and 0.78 (0.66 to 0.91), respectively. In contrast, late AMD was not significantly associated with systemic medications. There is an information that antidiabetics, lipid-lowering agents, and antioxidants could theoretically be repurposed for AMD treatment (2). I present information regarding the effect of antidiabetic medications on the risk of AMD.
Blitzer et al. (3) conducted a case-control study and metformin use was significantly associated with reduced odds of AMD, presenting dose dependent manner. But metformin did not have an effect of protecting diabetic retinopathy. In contrast, Gokhale et al. (4) conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the effect of metformin on the risk reduction of AMD. The adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of patients prescribed metformin (with or without other antidiabetic medications) against those prescribed any other antidiabetic medication only for AMD was 1.02 (0.92 to 1.12). Vergroesen et al. (5) conducted a cohort study and a lower risk of AMD was not observed in patients with metformin, but other diabetes medication was significantly associated with a lower risk of AMD.
Anyway, clinical trials are nee...
Anyway, clinical trials are needed to specify the inconsistent relationship between antidiabetic medications and the risk reduction of AMD.
1. Mauschitz MM, Verzijden T, Schuster AK, et al. Association of lipid-lowering drugs and antidiabetic drugs with age-related macular degeneration: a meta-analysis in Europeans. Br J Ophthalmol 2022 doi: 10.1136/bjo-2022-321985
2. Nadeem U, Xie B, Xie EF, et al. Using advanced bioinformatics tools to identify novel therapeutic candidates for age-related macular degeneration. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2022;11(8):10.
3. Blitzer AL, Ham SA, Colby KA, Skondra D. Association of metformin use with age-related macular degeneration: A case-control study. JAMA Ophthalmol 2021;139(3):302-309.
4. Gokhale KM, Adderley NJ, Subramanian A, et al. Metformin and risk of age-related macular degeneration in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study. Br J Ophthalmol 2022 doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-319641
5. Vergroesen JE, Thee EF, Ahmadizar F, et al. Association of diabetes medication with open-angle glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract in the Rotterdam Study. JAMA Ophthalmol 2022;140(7):674-681.