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Fungal microbiome (mycobiome) and virome of the lacrimal sac in patients with PANDO: the lacriome paper 5
  1. Mohammad Javed Ali
  1. Govindram Seksaria Institute of Dacryology, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Mohammad Javed Ali, Govindram Seksaria Institute of Dacryology, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad 500034, India; drjaved007{at}


Purpose To study the fungal microbiome (mycobiome) and the virome of the lacrimal sacs in patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO).

Methods A prospective study was performed on 10 consecutive samples of the lacrimal sac contents obtained from patients with PANDO. The samples were obtained from the lacrimal sacs under endoscopy guidance and immediately transported on ice to the laboratory. Following DNA extraction and library preparation, a whole shotgun metagenome sequencing was performed on the Illumina platform (NOVASEQ 6000). The fungal internal transcript spacer analysis was performed using the PIPITS v2.7 . The viral taxonomy profiling was performed using Kraken2 against the virus database.

Results The taxonomic hit distribution across the lacrimal sac samples showed rich fungal diversity (4 phyla, 12 classed, 21 families and 26 genera). The major phyla were Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and the key genera identified were Alternaria, Hyphopichia, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Epicoccum. The virome analysis identified 13 phyla, 15 classes and 27 families. The viruses were commonly from the families Poxviridae, Retroviridae, Siphoviridae and Myoviridae, Poxviridae being the most prevalent family. The BeAn 58058 virus, a member of the Poxviridae family, was the most abundant in all the samples.

Conclusion The present study is the first whole metagenome sequencing exclusively of the fungal microbiome and virome from the lacrimal sacs of patients with PANDO. The lacrimal sacs harbour diverse fungal and viral communities with distinct ecosystem dynamics. Further studies of their functions and interactions with the hosts would provide valuable insights.

  • diagnostic tests/investigation
  • infection
  • lacrimal drainage
  • orbit

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request.

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Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request.

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.