Purpose To determine prevalence of anisomyopia (axial length (AL) difference ≥2.5 mm) among high myopes ((HMs), defined by spherical equivalent of ≤6.0 diopters or AL ≥ 26.5 mm). To characterise the shorter anisomyopic eye (SAE) and evaluate if pathologic myopia (PM) in the longer anisomyopic eye (LAE) was associated with increased risk of PM in the SAE.
Methods 1168 HMs were recruited from Singapore National Eye Centre clinic for this cross-sectional study. Biometry, fundus photography and swept-source optical coherence tomography were performed. Patients with high axial anisomyopia were identified. Structural characteristics and presence of PM were described. Stepwise multivariate regression explored associations between PM in the LAE and pathology in the SAE, controlling for confounding variables.
Results Prevalence of anisomyopia was 15.8% (184 of 1168 patients). Anisomyopic patients (age 65.8±13.5 years) had mean AL of 30.6±2.0 mm and 26.2±2.3 mm in the LAE and SAE, respectively. 52.7% of SAEs had AL < 26.5 mm. Prevalence of myopic macular degeneration, macula-involving posterior staphyloma (PS), myopic traction maculopathy (MTM) and myopic choroidal neovascularisation (mCNV) in the SAE was 52.2%, 36.5%, 13.0% and 8.2%, respectively. Macular hole in the LAE was associated with increased risk of MTM in the SAE (OR=4.88, p=0.01). mCNV in the LAE was associated with mCNV in the SAE (OR=3.57, p=0.02). PS in the LAE was associated with PS in the SAE (OR=4.03, p<0.001).
Conclusions Even when controlled for AL, PM complications in the LAE predict similar PM complications in the SAE. Patients with high axial anisometropia with PM in the LAE should be monitored carefully for complications in the SAE.
- Optics and Refraction
Data availability statement
Data are available upon reasonable request. Data includes deidentified participant data, available from first author (ORCID 0000-0002-8004-0015) upon request. Data is owned by Singapore National Eye Centre and reuse is not permitted.
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Contributors QVH, RC and CWW conceived and designed the study. JL, YSD, SQC and QYW contributed to analysis of data. JL lead the analysis and interpretation of the data and drafted the manuscript. All authors (JL, YSD, SQC, QYW, RC, HNMA, SRG, CWW and QVH) contributed to the acquisition of data, critical review and final approval of the manuscript and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. QVH is the guarantor.
Funding This work was supported in part by the Singapore National Medical Research Council (grant CSA/MOH-000151/2019, QVH).
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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