Background It has been reported that the gut microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis of uveitis, but the specific pathogenic microbes and metabolites in different types of uveitis are still unclear.
Methods Microbiome and metabolites were detected using 16S ribosomal DNA and LC‒MS/MS (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) in 45 individuals, including 16 patients with Vogt Koyanagi Harada (VKH), 11 patients with acute anterior uveitis (AAU) and 18 healthy controls.
Result The diversity of intestinal microbes among the VKH, AAU and control groups was not significantly different. Thirteen specific microbes and 38 metabolites were detected in the VKH group, and 7 metabolites (vanillin, erythro-isoleucine, pyrimidine, 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid, beta-tocopherol, (-)-gallocatechin and N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide) significantly changed only in patients with VKH, which mainly acted on nicotinamide and nicotinamide metabolism and biotin metabolism (p<0.05). Compared with the VKH group, the AAU group had milder intestinal changes. Only 11 specific microbes and 29 metabolites changed in the AAU group, while these metabolites were not specific (p<0.05). These metabolites mainly acted on arachidonic acid metabolism. In addition, three microbes and two metabolites had the same changes in the VKH and AAU groups (p<0.05). Multiple correlations were found between gut microbes and metabolites in the VKH and AAU groups. Six microbes (Pediococcus, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Photobacterium, Gardnerella and Lawsonia) and two metabolites (pyrimidine and gallocatechin) as biomarkers could effectively distinguish patients with VKH from patients with AAU and healthy individuals, with AUC (area under the curve) values greater than 82%. Four microbes (Lentilactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae_UCG-010, Cetobacterium, Liquorilactobacillus) could distinguish patients with AAU from patients with VKH and healthy controls with AUC>76%.
Conclusion Significant differences in intestinal microbes and metabolites suggest their different roles in the pathogenesis of uveitis entities. Changes in the metabolism of certain B vitamins may be involved in the pathogenesis of VKH.
Data availability statement
Data are available upon reasonable request.
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Correction notice This paper has been updated since it was first published. One of the funders was inadvertently omitted by the production office and it has now been reinstated.
Contributors ML analysed data, wrote and revised manuscript. ML analysed the data and provided comments for discussion part. XW collected specimens. HW collected specimens and analysed the data. SJ analysed the data and participated in the writing of the discussion section. XL is guarantor, designed this research and participated in the interpretation and discussion of the results, revised manuscripts, submitted manuscripts and applied for funding.
Funding This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China, grant no. 81300752; National Natural Science Foundation of China, grant no. 82371043; and Changchun Science and Technology Development Plan Project, grant no. 21ZGM19.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.