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Continuous 24-hour intraocular pressure monitoring in normal Chinese adults using a novel contact lens sensor system
  1. Yuning Zhang1,
  2. Yifan Wei1,
  3. Ching Hymn Christopher Lee2,
  4. Ping Wai OR2,
  5. Isuru Kaweendra Karunaratne2,
  6. Mingjie Deng1,
  7. Wenxin Yang1,
  8. Iok Tong Chong2,
  9. Yangfan Yang1,
  10. Zidong Chen1,
  11. Yanmei Fan1,
  12. David C C Lam2,
  13. Minbin Yu1
  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Ocular Diseases, Guangzhou, China
  2. 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China
  1. Correspondence to Professor Minbin Yu, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Ocular Diseases, Guangzhou, China; yuminbin{at}mail.sysu.edu.cn; Professor David C C Lam, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China; medcclam{at}ust.hk

Abstract

Aims To investigate the physiological nyctohemeral intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms of normal Chinese adults using a novel contact lens sensor system (CLS) that can output IOP in millimetres of mercury (mm Hg) continuously.

Methods Fifty-nine eyes of 59 normal Chinese adults completed 24-hour IOP monitoring using the novel CLS. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the 24-hour IOP mean, peak and acrophase, trough and bathyphase, fluctuation, and mean amplitude of intraocular pressure excursion (MAPE). The continuous data were analysed at several periods (diurnal period, 08:00–20:00 hours; nocturnal period, 22:00–06:00 hours; sleep time, 0:00–06:00 hours), and compared between right and left eyes, males and females, and different age ranges (<30, and ≥30), respectively.

Results Normal adults had a lower peak, higher trough, smaller fluctuation and smaller MAPE (p<0.05 for all comparisons) but non-significantly different mean (p=0.695) in the nocturnal period or sleep time compared with the diurnal period. The 24-hour IOP peak and trough showed the frequency of occurrence ranging from 1.69% to 15.25% at an interval of 2 hours. No IOP parameter showed significant difference between right and left eyes (p>0.1 for all comparisons). The male group had larger 24-hour and diurnal IOP fluctuation and MAPE (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Subjects aged 30 or over had higher 24-hour and diurnal mean, higher peak, and larger MAPE (p<0.05 for all comparisons).

Conclusion Continuous 24-hour IOP output from the CLS in normal Chinese was stable with a comparable mean level between day and night, as well as scattered acrophase and bathyphase. The 24-hour IOP mean increased with age, and IOP variations were positively correlated to age and male sex.

  • Intraocular pressure
  • Contact lens
  • Physiology

Data availability statement

Data are available on reasonable request.

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Data availability statement

Data are available on reasonable request.

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Footnotes

  • Contributors YZ performed the investigation, data analysis and manuscript drafting. YW and MD contributed to the investigation. CHCL, PWO, IKK and ITC were contributors to technical supports, data quality and manuscript revision. WY contributed to investigation and manuscript revision. YY, ZC and YF contributed to data collection. DCCL and MY were the leader of the study, designed and in charge of the research, and were also responsible for the overall content as guarantors. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding This work was supported by Advanced Research Program of China’s Manned Spaceflight (020105); The Hong Kong Innovation and Technology Fund (MRP/039/18X).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.