Table 1

Primary antibodies

AntibodyMouse monoclonal (M) or rabbit polyclonal (R)DilutionSource/reference
Growth factors:
VEGFR1:20–1:1000 Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa  Cruz, CA
 TGF-β1 R1:500Santa Cruz Biotechnology
 TGF-β1 R1:400 or 1:500Ref 35
 TGF-β2 R1:400 or 1:500Ref 35
 TGF-β3 R1:500Ref 35
 PDGF-AR1:100Ref 36
 PDGF-BM1:50Ref37
 bFGF R1:3000Ref 38
 bFGFM1:50Ref39
Receptors:
 Flt-1R1:100Santa Cruz Biotechnology
 Flk-1 (smaller peptide fragment)R1:100Santa Cruz Biotechnology
 Flk-1 (overlapping, larger peptide fragment)R1:100Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Cell type identification markers:
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)R1:1000Dako, Santa Barbara, CA; Ref 40
 Class III β tubulinM1:500Ref 41
  • Immunostaining for VEGF was seen at all dilutions of primary antibodies ranging from 1:20 to 1:1000 (1:20, 1:50, 1:100, 1:200, 1:500, and 1:1000). A dilution of 1:20 was used on specimens that were photographed because it enhanced the crispness of the staining without adding any background or false positive staining.