Method | Study | Subjects | Mean SD (D) | 95% limits (D) | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Sphere | Subjective refraction | Rosenfield and Chiu14 | Adult (n=12) | 0.14 | +/− 0.27 | ||
Objective refraction | 0.16 | +/− 0.31 | |||||
Retinomax measured values | Present study | Child (n=43) | 0.42 | +/− 0.82 | |||
Cylinder | Subjective refraction | Rosenfield and Chiu14 | Adult (n=12) | 0.08 | +/− 0.16 | ||
Objective refraction | 0.19 | +/− 0.37 | |||||
Retinomax measured values | Present study | Child (n=43) | 0.24 | +/− 0.47 | |||
Spherical equivalent | Subjective refraction | Rosenfield and Chiu14 | Adult (n=12) | 0.15 | +/− 0.29 | ||
Objective refraction | 0.14 | +/− 0.27 | |||||
Retinomax measured values | Present study | Child (n=43) | 0.39 | +/− 0.76 |
Mean SD = standard deviation of each subject’s five measurements of the right eye was determined, and the mean of the standard deviations was calculated.
95% Limits=1.96 times the mean SD.
↵Following each of five subjective refractions, each subject had 25 measurements taken with the Canon R-1 autorefractor. Each of the five measured values of objective refraction were calculated as the mean of 25 measurements.
↵The first five Retinomax measured values on each subject were analysed according to the methods of Rosenfield and Chiu.14Only subjects with at least five measured values were included (43/45).