Table 4

Comparison of reproducibility of subjective and objective refraction in adults14 with reproducibility of Retinomax measured values in children

MethodStudySubjectsMean SD (D)95% limits (D)
SphereSubjective refractionRosenfield and Chiu14 Adult (n=12)0.14+/− 0.27
Objective refraction0.16+/− 0.31
Retinomax measured valuesPresent studyChild (n=43)0.42+/− 0.82
CylinderSubjective refractionRosenfield and Chiu14 Adult (n=12)0.08+/− 0.16
Objective refraction0.19+/− 0.37
Retinomax measured valuesPresent studyChild (n=43)0.24+/− 0.47
Spherical equivalentSubjective refractionRosenfield and Chiu14 Adult (n=12)0.15+/− 0.29
Objective refraction0.14+/− 0.27
Retinomax measured valuesPresent studyChild (n=43)0.39+/− 0.76
  • Mean SD = standard deviation of each subject’s five measurements of the right eye was determined, and the mean of the standard deviations was calculated.

  • 95% Limits=1.96 times the mean SD.

  • Following each of five subjective refractions, each subject had 25 measurements taken with the Canon R-1 autorefractor. Each of the five measured values of objective refraction were calculated as the mean of 25 measurements.

  • The first five Retinomax measured values on each subject were analysed according to the methods of Rosenfield and Chiu.14Only subjects with at least five measured values were included (43/45).