Table 5

Comparison of reproducibility of retinoscopy, subjective refraction, and autorefraction measurements in adults11 with reproducibility of Retinomax measured values in children

MethodStudySample (n) Mean difference (D)Standard deviation (D)95% Confidence interval (D)
RetinoscopyZadnik et al 11 Adults (40)0.070.48−0.87 to 1.02
Subjective refractionZadnik et al 11 Adults (40)−0.010.48−0.95 to 0.93
AutorefractionZadnik et al 11 Adults (40)0.050.16−0.27 to 0.37
Retinomax Present studyChildren (35)−0.060.21−0.47 to 0.35
  • Mean of the differences between two measurements in the vertical meridian (right eye only).

  • For each subject, the difference (D) between the first two measured values of spherical power in the vertical meridian was determined. Subjects with oblique axes of astigmatism (that is, greater than 20° from horizontal or vertical) were not included in these analyses.